Persistent Depressive Disorder (2023)

Persistent Depressive Disorder (1)

If you’re down most of the time, don’t get relief for days on end and seem hopeless, you may have persistent depressive disorder (PDD). Also called dysthymia, it affects 3% of the population at some point in their lives.

Persistent depression can be treated with a combination of medication and counseling or therapy. It’s important to talk with your doctor about how to treat this mental health condition and to take medications exactly as prescribed.

Persistent Depressive Disorder Symptoms

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) symptoms can be long-lasting and hard to manage. They may include feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem. They can also affect your sleep, appetite and mood.

PDD is a serious mental health condition that can lead to a lifetime of disability. It can be triggered by illness, medications and other factors.

The most effective treatment for persistent depressive disorder is a combination of medication and talk therapy, or counseling. This can include group sessions or in-person or remote sessions with a mental health professional.

Your doctor may order blood or urine tests to rule out other causes of your symptoms, such as a medical illness. Then, your doctor will determine if your symptoms meet the criteria for persistent depressive disorder set forth by the DSM-5.

You may have persistent depressive disorder if you are experiencing symptoms of depression that have been present more often than not for at least 2 years and that cause significant distress or impairment of normal functioning. The symptoms must also be present for at least 1 year in children and adolescents.

Persistent Depressive Disorder DSM 5

Persistent depressive disorder is a condition that can last for years. It can cause you to feel sad and empty, lose interest in daily activities and have trouble getting things done. It can also lead to feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem.

De acordo com American Psychiatric Association (APA), it is one of the two primary forms of depression, along with major depressive disorder. The most common symptom is a feeling of sadness or loss of interest in life. It may include thoughts of death or suicide.

The APA states that it is more of a chronic condition than a transient mood episode. It is often associated with symptoms such as insomnia or fatigue, and is frequently treated with antidepressants.

The AMA defines the most notable symptom as a “depression-like condition with at least five of the following nine symptoms or signs.” These include low mood, irritability, appetite changes, sleeping problems, lack of energy, thoughts of death, poor concentration and weight gain. The aforementioned symptoms must be present for at least two months to be considered persistent.

Persistent Depressive Disorder (2)

Persistent Depressive Disorder Treatment

Persistent depressive disorder treatment is usually a combination of medications, psychotherapy and lifestyle changes. Some people choose to try a combination of these options while others may pursue medication alone.

Your healthcare provider will start with a physical exam and ask questions about your symptoms and life. He or she may also order blood tests to find out if you have an underlying health condition that can cause depression.

Antidepressants work to lift mood and decrease other symptoms of depression. It takes about 4 to 6 weeks for these medicines to have a full effect.

If you are taking an antidepressant, it’s important to keep taking it as directed by your healthcare provider. Stopping it suddenly or missing a few doses can cause withdrawal-like symptoms and can make your depression worse.

Changing your diet and exercise habits may help improve mood and reduce the symptoms of persistent depression. You can also try stress relief and sleep habits.

Your provider or therapist will help you identify stressors and develop coping strategies. They will also provide ongoing guidance and support.

Persistent Depressive Disorder ICD 10

Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) is a category of depression that can be classified using the ICD-10 system. This system is a medical classification list that was created by the World Health Organization and is used internationally to diagnose physical and mental health conditions.

The criteria for this category of depression are very similar to those for dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) [7,8]. It is a chronic depression that lasts for most days over a period of 2 years or longer.

Patients who have persistent depressive disorder typically experience symptoms like sadness, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. They may also feel hopeless or have thoughts of suicide.

Symptoms of PDD can be treated with medication and talk therapy. This treatment is usually most effective if the patient takes the medication as prescribed by their healthcare provider.

The ICD-10 code for this category of depression is F33.1, Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent, Moderate. This is a billable code that is used for healthcare diagnosis reimbursement.

Persistent Depressive Disorder Medication

Persistent Depressive Disorder, or PDD, is a form of depression that lasts for at least 2 years. People with this condition have a low mood most of the time, or even most of the day.

They may have a lot of trouble with sleep, eating, or making decisions. They also may have problems with school, work, or relationships.

If you have PDD, there are many treatments for it. These include medications and therapy.

Your doctor will help you choose the best type of medicine for your symptoms. You can try different types of antidepressants to find one that works for you. Some of these are SSRIs, which increase serotonin in the brain. Others are SNRIs, which increase norepinephrine.

Some medicines take several weeks or longer to start working. Other medicines need to be taken regularly for a while.

If your doctor prescribes a medication for you, don’t stop taking it without talking to him or her first. Skipping a dose can cause withdrawal-like symptoms, which may lead to more depression.

Persistent Depressive Disorder (3)

What Is Persistent Depressive Disorder

Persistent depressive disorder is a mental health condition that affects people of all ages. It can be triggered by major life events, such as the death of a loved one or loss of a job.

It may also be triggered by low levels of certain hormones, such as serotonin. These hormones control emotions, body chemistry and other functions.

The condition can be caused by inherited traits, brain chemistry or life events. Some symptoms of persistent depression include sadness, irritability and trouble sleeping.

Often, these feelings last for years and interfere with a person’s daily life. It can lead to feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness and isolation.

For a doctor to diagnose you with persistent depressive disorder, you must have a depressed mood (depression is more severe) that has lasted for at least 2 years or longer in adults and at least 1 year in children. You must also have two or more of the following symptoms to be diagnosed:

Treatment for PDD usually includes medication and talk therapy. Your doctor will work with you to find the best medication for your needs. Your treatment plan will depend on your age, your physical and emotional health, how long you have had the disorder and how well your current medications are working.

Persistent Depressive Disorder Dysthymia

Persistent Depressive Disorder, or dysthymia, is a chronic form of depression. This term combines two earlier diagnoses — dysthymia and chronic major depressive disorder.

People who have this form of depression often feel very sad, hopeless and overwhelmed. Their symptoms can interfere with their daily lives and may also cause physical problems.

Symptoms usually start when you are young and persist for years. They can affect your work, school and social life.

Dysthymia can be caused by many things, including stressful situations, loss, grief and major life changes. In some cases, the illness occurs as a result of genetics.

A doctor or mental health professional can make the diagnosis by asking about your depressive symptoms and medical history. You can tell your provider whether you have had depressive feelings for more than 2 weeks.

Persistent Depressive Disorder Criteria

Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) is a chronic form of depression. It can last years, and symptoms include mood changes, irritability, and problems with sleep and appetite.

PDD is diagnosed when a depressed mood, with at least four of the symptoms listed in table 3, has been present for most of the day and for more days than not for at least 2 years for adults, or 1 year for children and adolescents. The symptoms must also have caused significant distress or impairment in functioning.

If your symptoms are so long-lasting that you think they’re a part of you, it’s important to get help for them. Your doctor will be able to diagnose you with PDD and ask you clarifying questions about your symptoms to make sure they’re not just a symptom of another illness.

The new DSM-5 criteria for persistent depressive disorder include a number of changes. For example, if your depression is caused by an underlying substance or medication, then you’ll be treated with a different diagnosis than if you have a major depressive episode alone. Similarly, you’ll be treated separately if you have a chronic depression that’s associated with a manic episode or mixed or hypomanic episodes in the first two years.


What are the 5 differential diagnoses of persistent depressive disorder PDD )? ›

Differential diagnoses for persistent depressive disorder include ruling out medical/organic causes as well as screening for other DSM diagnoses, including major depression, bipolar, psychotic disorders, substance-induced states, and personality disorders.

What is the minimum amount of time required for symptoms in persistent depressive disorder? ›

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. It's less severe than major depressive disorder — another type — but it's ongoing. It's defined as lasting at least two years in adults and at least one year in children and teens.

What is the solution for dysthymia? ›

Psychotherapy and medication are both effective treatment modalities for dysthymia and their use in combination is common.

What is persistent depressive disorder characterized by? ›

Overview. Persistent depressive disorder is a continuous, long-term form of depression. You may feel sad and empty, lose interest in daily activities and have trouble getting things done. You may also have low self-esteem, feel like a failure and feel hopeless.

What triggers dysthymia? ›

These include environmental, psychological, biological, and genetic factors. Chronic stress and trauma have also been linked to this condition. Dysthymia seems to run in families, but no genes have yet been linked to it.

Is persistent depressive disorder worse than major depressive disorder? ›

persistent depressive disorder find that dysthymia is a milder form of MDD. Major depressive disorder is a much more severe form of depression to the point where it can make someone feel unable to get out of bed, perform basic hygiene, or eat enough. The duration of symptoms is also different.

How long does PDD last? ›

The main symptom of PDD is a low, dark, or sad mood on most days for at least 2 years. In children and teens, the mood can be irritable instead of depressed and lasts for at least 1 year.

Does dysthymia ever go away? ›

Dysthymia Treatment and Prognosis

They may see it as an unavoidable consequence of modern life, or they may convince themselves that superficial changes will eventually make their feelings of sadness and emptiness disappear. But dysthymia is a chronic mental health condition that seldom vanishes on its own.

What age does dysthymia start? ›

In fact, an adult must experience depression for at least a two-year period to receive a diagnosis (one year for children and teenagers). Dysthymia often has an early and subtle onset during childhood, adolescence or early adulthood.

Can people with dysthymia hold a job? ›

While more chronic in nature than many forms of depression, dysthymia is generally considered to be less severe in nature than clinical depression. Individuals that suffer from this condition often find it difficult or impossible to participate in routine, daily activities, including work.

What is life like with dysthymia? ›

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) — or dysthymia, as it was once commonly called — is a chronic form of depression where symptoms last for 2 or more years. It can make you feel sad, hopeless, or pessimistic. It can also negatively impact your self-esteem and cause you to lose interest in things you once enjoyed.

What happens if you don't treat dysthymia? ›

Whether young or old, if conditions like dysthymia are left untreated, it can have a negative impact on a person's life. For example, people may not form lasting friendships, romantic relationships or perform well at work. Low-grade, persistent depression is also linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

How does the diagnosis of persistent depressive disorder differentiate itself from other depressive disorders? ›

The main difference concerns the duration of symptoms. PDD symptoms last for at least 2 years, in adults, while people with MDD experience depressive episodes that are separated by at least 2 months. Genetic, social, and physical factors cause PDD and MDD.

What is the DSM-5 criteria for dysthymia? ›

The specific DSM-5 criteria for persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) are as follows: Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated by either subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years.

What are the two new depressive disorder diagnoses included in the DSM-5? ›

The updated DSM-5 added two new disorders to depressive disorders:
  • disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD)
  • premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Can you diagnose both MDD and PDD? ›

Even though PDD and MDD are separate conditions, people can have both at the same time. If you've had PDD for several years and then have a major depressive episode, you may refer to this as double depression. While many people, and even medical professionals, may use this term, it is not an official diagnosis.

Is persistent depressive disorder serious? ›

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is chronic depression that lasts a long time. A person's moods are generally affected for at least 2 years (1 year for children and adolescents). Their depression is usually mild or moderate, rather than severe. Most people who have PDD can't recall when they first became depressed.

How does persistent depressive disorder affect the brain? ›

There's growing evidence that several parts of the brain shrink in people with depression. Specifically, these areas lose gray matter volume (GMV). That's tissue with a lot of brain cells. GMV loss seems to be higher in people who have regular or ongoing depression with serious symptoms.

What are the most common co occurring disorders with persistent depressive disorder? ›

Co-Occurring Disorders

The National Institute on Drug Abuse states that those who suffer from a mood disorder or an anxiety disorder are approximately two times as likely to also have a co-occurring drug use disorder. 17 Up to half of all individuals with dysthymic disorder suffer from comorbid substance abuse.


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Virgilio Hermann JD

Last Updated: 17/12/2023

Views: 6512

Rating: 4 / 5 (41 voted)

Reviews: 88% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Virgilio Hermann JD

Birthday: 1997-12-21

Address: 6946 Schoen Cove, Sipesshire, MO 55944

Phone: +3763365785260

Job: Accounting Engineer

Hobby: Web surfing, Rafting, Dowsing, Stand-up comedy, Ghost hunting, Swimming, Amateur radio

Introduction: My name is Virgilio Hermann JD, I am a fine, gifted, beautiful, encouraging, kind, talented, zealous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.